Posts Tagged ‘Raleigh’

By Corey Sturmer

In the wake of a water utility disaster which involved the Orange Water and Sewer Authority “accidentally” over-fluoridating the public water supply, OWASA is holding a series of meetings to discuss the emergency and hear from concerned citizens regarding the incident. At the first public comment section which took place February 9, the majority of citizens who took time to speak focused narrowly on OWASA’s longstanding public water fluoridation policy and demanded it’s immediate cessation. OWASA had been warned about the dangers as far back as 2012, but persisted in their march to fluoridate leading up to the disaster. OWASA has actually already suspended the public water fluoridation program after the ‘accident’ but then brought in an alleged “Independent Consultant” who was tasked with delivering a report on the infrastructure failures and ways to improve. The consultant is CH2M Hill, which is a multi-billion dollar government trough company with negative revenue who also happens to have a conflict of interest in this matter since they contract with the very same fertilizer companies who produce and sell fluoride across the United States. Not surprisingly, CH2M Hill is being even less critical of the fluoridation policy than OWASA and it seems apparent that the Town of Chapel Hill will continue the policy if the citizens don’t speak up. In the 2nd public comment meeting on this topic, OWASA accomplished the following things;

1) Admitted that Fluoride causes leaching from lead pipes / joints / fixtures

2) Admitted that OWASA is not mandated to fluoridate

3) Admitted by omission that OWASA customers never voted to fluoridate

4) Admitted that there is no barrier between the fluoridation clearwell and the distribution system

5) Admitted that they will allow over-fluoridation in the future as a cost-benefit to prevent having to cut off the water

6) Voted unanimously against allowing the OWASA customers to have a public referendum on public water fluoridation. As you can see, OWASA is a corrupted and compromised institution that does not have the public’s best interest at heart.

You can contact the OWASA Board here: http://www.owasa.org/board-of-directors

And support our efforts here: https://www.gofundme.com/DurhamAgains…http://www.durhamagainstfluoride.com

Join the Facebook Event Here

The Durham City Government has just announced that they will be officially receiving the recommendation from the Durham Public Health Board to continue drugging our municipal water supply this coming Thursday on September 5, 2013. Terry Capers from the City Clerk’s office recently wrote,

To: thegldnrule@gmail.com

from: Terry.Capers@durhamnc.gov

The Durham County Public Health Director Ms. Gayle Harris will present the Mayor and City Council with the Municipal Water Fluoridation recommendation at the Work Session on Thursday, September 5, 2013 at 1:00 pm!

If you are interested in speaking at the Work Session regarding the item please let me know and I will inform the City Clerk’s Office of your presence. 

On Friday afternoon, August 30th the September 5th Work Session agenda will be posted to our website for your convenience.

Questions please let us know.

Enjoy your Thursday! 

Since we have now become experts at seeing through the tired & repetitive public health propaganda, we can accurately predict what we will hear from Gayle Harris on September 5th, 2013 and react accordingly.  It should be no surprise to anyone that Gayle Harris will say something similar if not exactly the same as was uttered by Vicki Westbrook all the way back in 2011, when I first brought this issue to the Council’s attention.

In fact, the audio recordings of Vicki are below where she said something remarkably similar to the official recommendation produced by the board of health back in June of this year, nearly 2 years later;

“Fluoridation in drinking water is again considered to be one of the primary resources for preventing tooth decay and one of the top 10 advances in Public Health that has happened since the 1900’s”

-Vicki Westbrook

Compare & Contrast Vicki’s statement from 2011 with the recommendation published in June by the board of health, after so much “diligent consideration” by the board of health & Durham City Government, which Gayle Harris will repeat to the city council on this coming Thursday:

Durham Board of Health News: “Board of Health Recommends Continued Fluoridation of Drinking Water”

“This recommendation is deemed effective for prevention of tooth decay and for promotion of good oral health by the United States Department of Health and Human Services (US-DHHS) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

If my prediction comes true, this would certainly re-confirm the pattern we have noticed since the beginning of our efforts which is to repeat the propaganda perpetrated by the U.S. Public Health Service, where the Fluoridation policy originated in the first place during the 1950’s.

You see, even after the Fluoride fraud was brilliantly exposed in 2012 by WTVD in addition to a collective 2 years protesting publicly, the sad fact is that the prognosis from the whole Durham City Government remains every bit as un-evolved as it was to begin with:

“The Government will continue to medicate the population through the water supply, without providing any scientific evidence of its benefits.”

Have they not learned anything throughout all this time?  Do the people in our city government have no critical thinking skills of their own, or will they continue to restate the federal agency’s every word like they are dog on a choker leash?

While they have surely put on a nice theater which I will elaborate on below but first we ask ourselves;

  • Is it true that the board of health is making a legitimate & well researched recommendation?
  • Have they honestly debated the subject & considered all the developments since I brought this to their attention in 2011?

Let’s review the chronology of events and judge for ourselves:

  1. December 20, 2011 I presented scientific evidence to Durham City Council that fluoride was harmful to our bones & lowers the Intelligence Quotient in Children among other things & demanded it be stopped.  Vicki Westbrook appeared preemptively to say what was quoted above.
  2. December 25, 2011 The Herald Sun & Durham City Government Dismiss the whole thing
  3. January 2012 – I create DurhamAgainstFluoride.com
  4. January 2012 Los Angeles Healthcare System releases Study Linking Fluoride Uptake with #1 Killer Cardiovascular Disease
  5. March 22, 2012 I make a formal request for the documents which substantiate the city’s claim that drinking fluoride prevents tooth decay.  This is when Kevin Buchholtz from the Dept. of Health and Human Services appears and admits to the City Council that fluoride leaches lead from the pipe system and causes behavior problems in children, in addition to giving his own daughter dental fluorosis
  6. May 22, 2012 – Albuquerque, the most populated city in New Mexico Bans Public Water Fluoridation
  7. July 25, 2012 Harvard Releases Comprehensive Study Concluding Ingesting Fluoride Lowers Intelligence Quotient
  8. September 21, 2012 I Appear at Durham Public Health Board to encourage the board to do their own research and be proud about bucking the system; they create another ad-hoc committee to review Fluoride Issue
  9. November 15, 2012 WTVD releases their incredible 7.5 minute investigative report on Fluoride, featuring Durham Against Fluoride & the Board of Health
  10. November 29, 2012 Durham City Government Releases Rebuttal Video of Vicki Westbrook repeating unsubstantiated claim; “Fluoride is added to prevent tooth decay”
  11. December 2012 Durham City Government Posts Job Listing for Public Relations Manager for the Water Management Division
  12. January-February 2013 I began working with anti-Fluoride activists from Raleigh, Durham & Chapel Hill to produce a 1.5 hour long retrospective documentary on our efforts so far
  13. March 2013 Durham Public Health Board Finally Has their Hearing to debate the Fluoride issue and make their official recommendation; I am removed by force by a Deputy Sheriff who followed orders from Gayle Harris
  14. April 2013 the Documentary, entitled “21st Century Dawes Project” is published exposing the Triangle Public Health Bureaucracy which enforces water Fluoridation in Raleigh, Durham & Chapel Hill
  15. May 22, 2013 Portland Oregon votes “NO” to adding Fluoride
  16. July 25, 2013 Mayor Bill Bell asserts King-like Powers over Durham, stifles Anti-Fluoride Protests
  17. July 29, 2013 Israel joins most of the developed world & Bans Fluoride
  18. THIS Thursday September 5 2013 Gayle Harris will repeat the same script from the Department of Health and Human Services; We the People will repeal their recommendation because the city has still not produced any scientific evidence to substantiate their claim drinking fluoride chemicals will prevent tooth decay.

As was explained in my last post, the bureaucracy of Durham’s Government has kept the fluoride topic a real hot potato for 2 years now, passing it from one ad-hoc committee to another so as to provide the illusion that they are taking this issue seriously, but never producing any legitimate evidence to substantiate their claims.  How they can possibly still think that we are still buying this tactic any longer can only be understood by coming on Thursday to observe if my prediction about what Gayle Harris will say comes true.

Since no tangible evidence has been produced so far to substantiate their claims, and I assure you they will not be produced on Thursday, the original request which the City is trying to answer with this recommendation remains unanswered, no matter what Gayle Harris or anyone else says.  This is because the evidence which supports drinking fluoride as a means to prevent tooth decay does not exist, yet remains the basis of the continuation of the policy.

Even more troublesome is the fact that the government agent providing Thursday’s recommendation to the City Council also happens to be the individual who ordered a Sheriff to remove me from the *Public* hearing when I exposed the original fraud back in March of this year.  Talk about conflict of interest! Thanks to the wonders of youtube, we can instantly time travel to that moment when Gayle squeals “Sheriff!” as I debunk their fraud in real time:

Given all of the above, we the people will come to 101 City Hall Plaza, Durham, NC on Thursday September 5th and appeal this recommendation, restating these truths which we believe to be self evident: that medicating the city’s water supply with a corrosive waste product from the fertilizer manufacturers is an unethical, poisonous, and illegal thing to do!

Join the Facebook Event Here

Thanks to a new understanding of water filtration techniques, I have created a brand new page on the top menu bar of DurhamAgainstFluoride which is designed to educate & enable you to protect yourself against the harmful chemicals and medications deliberately added to your municipal tap water.

It is also a very easy and seamless way for you to support my effort to expose the bureaucrats who toxify our water in the first place, since you are able to purchase a home water distiller here which will also contribute $49.00 to our cause and will thus help us pay for this website, flyers and other material to help raise awareness on public water fluoridation.

Check it out today! – “How to Remove Fluoride”

PaulRevere

Alex Jones’ Infowars.com Paul Revere Contest began at the beginning of 2013 to inspire liberty-oriented individuals to produce a short film on the state of our world and the state of freedom, to be considered for a potential $115,000 in prizes!  It was soon thereafter I began working with other activists in Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill to create our entry which was entitled “21st Century Dawes Project” and followed retrospectively the efforts of myself and others in the area to raise awareness on the mass medication of our public water supplies by the bureaucratic & academic “elite” who have convinced generations of people that it is in their best interest to drink an industrial toxic waste – one that is destroying our minds & bodies systematically.

Support Us – Rate & Comment on

“21st Century Dawes Project”

After much hard work the Infowars Paul Revere Contest is now LIVE where our entry is featured.  Please support Durham Against Fluoride, Greater Raleigh Resistance, Fluoride Free Chapel Hill and in general – FREEDOM – by visiting the contest page and commenting/rating our entry.

  • Finalists announced July 17th
  • 3rd place announced July 22nd
  • 2nd place announced July 25th
  • GRAND PRIZE announced July 29th

Support Us – Rate & Comment on

“21st Century Dawes Project”

The Portland branch of the NAACP has recently declared that they are opposed to the fluoridation of our water supplies.  This makes a lot of sense in context & is principally consistent with the stated mission of the NAACP, shown below:

The mission of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination.

As we know community water fluoridation is a highly discriminatory policy which disproportionately harms people & ethnic minorities of lower economic standing, who naturally have a harder time affording the expensive specialized filters needed to remove the toxic hydrofluorosilicic acid from their tap water.   As a personal example it has cost me more than $400 in equipment just to remove that which the city adds to the water I already pay for!  This certainly represents a cost anyone would not want to bear if they didn’t have to, most of all those without the disposable income to do so.

Since the less affluent are forced to more often consume public drinking water & can neither afford the filters or purified water, they unknowingly consume this toxic liquor of contaminants on a constant basis which accumulates in their bodies over time & is linked to a myriad of adverse health effects, some of which are alluded to by Clifford Walker in the video above.  As opposed to what the government will tell you, this is not a humanitarian effort which ensures the equality of rights among all citizens, it is the exact opposite.  It violates informed consent laws and removes the right to choose what goes into your body and what does not.  Unfortunately we are now also finding out that it does little to even help benefit your teeth as the Center for Disease Control reports 40% of adolescents in America are now suffering from overexposure to fluoride & dental fluorosis. (Source: CDC)  This is just one of the visible manifestations of overexposure which is accompanied by many other problems we are just now learning about(See: 50 Reasons to Oppose Fluoride).  It is no surprise then that we see these rates of overexposure with 2nd & 3rd generations of fluoridated people now growing older.  .

Water is a natural resource that covers roughly 70% of the earth & makes up approximately 65% of our body which means we have the right to water free from pollutants, period.  This is especially true when citizens pay for the water & pollutants are introduced without their consent thanks to bureaucratic intervention based on dubious motivations and corrupt business practices.  In light of these basic truths Portland Chair of the NAACP Veteran’s Committee & longtime NAACP member Clifford Walker speaks above in opposition to this nearly 60 year old practice.  I have tried in the past to inform our city bureaucrats that contrary to conventional wisdom, community water fluoridation has had a history of opposition from minority groups and those involved with the civil rights movement.

In an effort to inform the Durham bureaucrats of this fact I appeared at this December 2012 health board meeting to encourage them to consider the other side of the fluoridation argument and what character of people are against it.   In the video above I read the following three quotes which demonstrates the strong anti-fluoride tradition woven throughout the civil right’s movement.

From William Owens, President of the 5,000-member-strong Coalition of African American Pastors:

“African Americans have more kidney disease and more diabetes, but nobody elected to tell us that kidney patients and diabetics are more susceptible to harm from ingested fluorides… We need to investigate this Fluoridegate mess. This is a civil rights and environmental justice issue.”

From Bernice King, daughter of Martin Luther King Jr.:

“Water fluoridation needs to end. It is good that organizations are lending their support to help push this outdated and harmful practice of fluoridation toward collapse.”

From Alveda King, niece of Martin Luther King Jr.:

“This is a civil rights issue. No one should be subjected to drinking fluoride in their water, especially sensitive groups like kidney patients and diabetics, babies in their milk formula, or poor families that cannot afford to purchase unfluoridated water. Black and Latino families are being disproportionately harmed.”

Since the injustice perpetrated by public water fluoridation is both ubiquitous and quite obvious now, I have contacted the local NAACP chapters in the area and invited them to alert their membership of the upcoming public discussion on water fluoridation happening this Thursday, June 13th at the Orange County OWASA Board Meeting.   I have the official announcement below, along with the facebook invite & videos of me alerting the media to cover this very important issue!

The OWASA Board of Directors will meet on Thursday, June 13, 2013, at 7:00 p.m., in OWASA’s Community Room, 400 Jones Ferry Road in Carrboro.

Facebook Invite

Item 5 of the Agenda is to Consider Citizens’ Petitions regarding Fluoridation of OWASA Drinking Water. The June 13th agenda is available on our website (under About OWASA/Board of Directors’ Meeting).

Thank you,

Andrea Orbich, CMC

Executive Assistant

aorbich@owasa.org

Orange Water and Sewer Authority

phone: 919-537-4217

In this video-essay I will explore the art of debating the Fluoride issue, but vicariously & more importantly expose the frightening reality that our civil servants, the ones we pay with our tax dollars, do not even understand the basic definition of a medication.  This is tragic in consideration of the fact that for almost 60 years Durham, Raleigh & Chapel Hill has enforced a mandatory & systematic medication of our public water supplies with what turns out to be a known neurotoxin Sodium Fluoride & Hydrofluorosilicic Acid.

As a primer please watch Chair of the Orange Water and Sewer Authority Alan Rimer express his utter incompetence on this subject during a “NRTS” meeting, which is closed to public comment & includes Perennial Government Pig & Public Health Terrorist Rebecca King who makes it her job to convince these ad-hoc committees that Fluoride is the best thing since sliced bread.


If you are wondering why bother with this mental exercise I say it is always diligent to point out the illegitimacy of our public servant’s arguments when they are claiming to provide a service that we do not want.

There are two main branches to the anti-fluoridation argument, as I see it:

1) One has versed themselves in some of the peer reviewed science which has been published since the compulsory fluoridation program first began in the 1950’s, and is concerned with adverse health risks associated with this policy.

2) A principled disagreement with the concept of forced medication via the public water supply.

Naturally one should be able to fuse both branches into a firm stance, especially if he or she is well learned in the clinical/scientific area.  Eventually in arguments the problem arises though how to reconcile #1, if in the case of #2 you must call it a medication?  Unfortunately in today’s pharmacrazy society the word medication  is often considered to have a positive connotation, whereas if you call Fluoridation a “poison” this requires you bear the burden of proof & engage in that discussion about the possible benefits in contrast to your perceived damage.  For arguments the waters become muddy very quickly in this later scenario & results in a less successful expose if you are not prepared to have that scientific discussion.

This is why a fluoride activist should always be as scientifically prepared as possible, else you may end up being deceived or run roughshod over by the dizzying hypocrisy and confusion exhibited below courtesy Allan Spalt.  Realizing how muddy the waters have become is always a sobering moment:

But what happens when one makes only the argument that he disagrees with the concept of being medicated through the water supply?

As I will show below, even when using the government’s own terminology to have a rational discussion the minions of the system CAN NOT COMPUTE and will sometimes resort to diversion, perverting the facts, or outright lying to maintain the upper hand.

The only unfortunate caveat to this perspective is that it must inherently use the language of those in Government,  who themselves claim a preventative benefit derived from the introduction of Fluoride to our water supply which defines it as medication –

Even though I also object to the assertion that there is some benefit derived.

In this spirit I appeared at the OWASA public meeting April 25 to ask the question “Does the OWASA board believe that they have the authority to medicate our water supply?”

To which the appointed OWASA Chair Alan Rimer says,

“That’s a Rhetorical question. The Board doesn’t need to answer that.”

The very next month OWASA Appointee Terri Buckner either reveals her stunning ignorance on the matter or issues the audience a bold face lie when she claims the Federal Drug Administration “does not define Fluoride as a drug.”

This, despite my prior appearance which offered a completely self evident truth that can not be refuted.

No matter what her reason for saying this falsehood, I will not be going to the State Board of Health as she suggests I will be asking her directly June 13 at the next OWASA board meeting & holding her accountable for these silly statements.

Please enjoy these events juxtaposed, and stay tuned for the next update.

If this juxtaposition does not hit your lie detector, please just follow this very simple equation:

A principled mind should easily grasp a proof which make the position self evident, and I have attempted to do this below & in the video above:

1) The Government says Fluoride is added to the water supply because they allege it prevents cavities

2) The FDA’s definition of a Drug/Medication is; “articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease”  [FD&C Act, sec. 201(g)(1)]

3) Therefore, the one SINGLE argument ever perpetrated by pro-fluoridationists has to be at bare minimum considered “medication of the drinking water.”

One must then ask, since this is such an easy concept, why do those in Government who proudly proclaim on their websites that Fluoride is added to the water for “dental health,” not even admit this basic fact in a face to face meeting?

The answer is two fold-

1) In the most correct sense what the Government is doing by medicating the water supply is already illegal.  This is true for many more ethical & legal reasons than just the Federal Drug Administration’s requirement that you have a medical license & write a prescription to administer medicine to another person. But that ought to be enough.

Of all people, Pharmacist & Mayor of Raleigh Nancy MacFarlane should get this but she is a complicit liar and will stubbornly stare you dead in the face without giving a damn about the state policy to hurt your family.  See below:

2) The Bureaucrats are allergic to the term medication because it implies a level of culpability, and since they subconsciously realize they do not have the moral high ground and are in fact fully aware that this is a corrosive toxic waste product of the aluminum & fertilizer industries, they do not want to be reminded of their acquiescence with a state-run eugenics operation which has wrought incalculable damage in the form of lost IQ, premature death, & systemic disease onto humankind.

Watch this phenomenon play out in real time as I educate people well advanced in age compared to me on how to be principled in their thinking.  Don’t confuse my tenacity for enjoyment – I wish I did not have to endure this mind numbing discussion but it is one that needs to be had for the good of all.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Association of vascular fluoride uptake with vascular calcification and Coronary Artery Disease

A January 2012 study published by the VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System has linked Sodium Fluoride uptake with the hardening & calcification of major arteries, also known as Cardiovascular disease & the number one cause of death in the United States.

The study first appeared in the Nuclear Medicine Communications Journal, a “rapid communications journal publishing research and clinical work in all areas of nuclear medicine for an international readership,”  but these observations have not yet been picked up by the collective.  The research was performed by nuclear medicine physicians who retrospectively reviewed the imaging data and cardiovascular history of 61 patients who received whole-body sodium [F]fluoride PET/CT studies at their institution from 2009 to 2010. Fluoride uptake and calcification in major arteries, including coronary arteries, were analyzed by both visual assessment and standardized uptake value measurement.

In the introduction section it is interestingly noted that the phenomenon of hardening arteries & what risks that may pose to our health has been extensively studied, however Fluoride uptake & it’s clinical significance to coronary arteries has not yet been documented:

To predict and prevent any deadly cardiovascular events, extensive studies have been conducted to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease.  Over the past decade, many cardiovascular studies focused on the calcification process in atherosclerosis (hardening of arteries).  Calcification in atherosclerosis occurs through an active process that resembles bone formation and is controlled by complex enzymatic and cellular pathways.  Coronary artery calcification parallels atherosclerosis progress and is strongly and linearly correlated with fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in coronary arteries.  However, the clinical significance of fluoride uptake in coronoary arteries has not been documented.

The results of this study therefore have vast implications for our collectively becoming aware of one main contributing factor to the ongoing scourge heart disease, namely municipal water fluoridation.  This is especially true in consideration that 80% of Americans are since 1957 forcibly fluoridated  via their public drinking water & cardiovascular disease still remains the #1 cause of death in America (600,000/year).

Despite this study’s relative significance to the research produced by Harvard which concluded higher Fluoride uptake predictably lowers the Intelligence Quotient in humans, these specific conclusions have unfortunately not made it into mainstream news to the same degree. Although the full article admits more research should be conducted on the clinical significance of Fluoride uptake, this is the exact problem we face (lack of studies) nearly 60 years into the forced, highly systematic & ubiquitous fluoridation of our municipal water supplies!  One wonders the true extent of damage done if our scientists are only just now realizing the tragic link between Fluoride uptake & a disease that kills more Americans than one hundred and seventy  9/11s combined EACH YEAR

This blows a huge hole in the already horrendously flawed pro-fluoride argument which posits that drinking Fluoride only affects the teeth and does not have any health hazards to other organs of the body.  For fluoride fighters in the area, listen to me debunk local Public Health Terrorist Rebecca King once more, who ridiculously claims ingestion of fluoride is the best thing since sliced bread as it returns to the mouth in our saliva & continuously bathes our teeth in Fluoride-rich fluid! Such a bold faced & twisted manipulation of the facts is incredible in that it intrinsically admits Fluoride is penetrating all cells of the body- even the salivation glands.

So What were the results?

Patients

There were 58 male patients and three female patients. Detailed clinical histories and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking history, obesity, and history of cardiovascular events, were obtained for all patients. The clinical characteristics of the patients are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1 Patients' Clinical CharacteristicsImaging and Statistical Analyses

sd_CTorthopedics_main_enCT and PET images were coregistered by the Philips Extended Brilliance workstation (Philips Healthcare). CT, PET, and fused PET/CT images were evaluated visually and semi-quantitatively simultaneously using the same workstation. All images were analyzed by two independent nuclear medicine physicians blinded to all patients’ clinical information. Inter-reader reproducibility was excellent and was evaluated using an intraclass correlation coefficient (0.89). Vascular calcification was identified as positive on CT images if the target was visually detectable with a greater than 130 Hounsfield units. CT-attenuated PET images were evaluated for fluoride uptake in major arteries. Background activity was based on the standardized uptake value (SUV) of the blood pool, which was calculated from the mean SUVs of three circular regions of interest (ROIs) placed in the left atrium, mid lumen of the aortic arch, and abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac trunk on axial images. The sizes of ROIs were 2cm in diameter for the left atrium and 1cm for the aortic arch and the abdominal aorta.

Results (Abbreviated, click link to view original article)

Patients’ age and reasons for sodium fluoride PET/CT imaging are summarized in Table 1.  Most patients were men with a median age of 66 years (27-91 years).  The majority of patients (69%) had more than one risk factor for coronary artery disease.

Arterial sodium Fluoride uptake and calcification

Arterial wall sodium fluoride uptake and calcification were evaluated in major arteries, including carotid arteries, the thoracic ascending (including aortic arch) aorta, the thoracic descending aorta, the abdominal aorta, femoral arteries, and major branches of coronary arteries. Iliac arteries were not evaluated because of frequently observed urinary and occasional bowel uptake in the pelvis, which interferes with the accurate assessment of iliac vessels. For coronary arteries, four major branches were evaluated. An example of fluoride uptake in femoral arteries is shown in Fig. 1. Orthogonal views of fluoride uptake in the aorta and coronary arteries are shown in Figs 2 and 3.
Figure1
Figure 2Figure3Relationship between coronary fluoride uptake and cardiovascular risk factors
The coronary arteries were also investigated for fluoride uptake. Four major branches of coronary arteries, including left main artery (LMA), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCA), and right coronary arteriy (RCA) were evaluated. Fluoride uptake was more frequently observed in the LAD and LCAs.  A similar pattern was also identified in coronary artery calcification. In each individual coronary branch, calcification was more frequently observed than fluoride uptake (Table 2).  Table2
  • Among 10 patients who had significant three-vessel coronary calcifications, 80% demonstrated fluoride uptake in at least one coronary branch (data not shown).
  • Cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, obesity, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, smoking history, and history of coronary artery disease were reviewed in all patients (Table 3).
  • The majority of the patients (69%) had more than one cardiovascular risk factor; however, neither the individual cardiovascular risk factor nor the number of risk factors was significantly correlated with coronary fluoride uptake (Table 3).
Table3
Nine patients had a history of cardiovascular events. Among them, eight demonstrated identifiable coronary fluoride uptake. There was significant correlation between coronary calcification and fluoride uptake in this group evaluated by Fisher’s exact test (Table 3). All nine patients also demonstrated coronary calcification on CT images. We also compared the SUVmax in coronary arteries between patients with and without a history of cardiovascular events. The average coronary SUV max in patients with a history of cardiovascular events was 1.70, significantly higher than 1.39 for patients without a history of cardiovascular events (P=0.029, two-tailed Student’s t-test). No correlation was observed between cardiovascular risk factors and fluoride uptake in other vascular territories (noncoronary).

Discussion Highlights

Vascular calcification, in particular coronary calcification, has been shown to predict vascular events [25–27]. 

In our study, fluoride uptake and CT calcification are significantly correlated in the same arterial territories, except in the abdominal aorta. This is because of the extremely high positive rate (97%, only one patient demonstrated negative uptake) for fluoride uptake in the abdominal aorta.

 Fluoride uptake either overlaps with calcification or locates adjacent to the detectable calcium deposits, suggesting that fluoride uptake and detectable calcification represent different stages of the atherosclerotic process.

 We found that fluoride uptake in coronary arteries is significantly correlated with a patient’s history of cardiovascular events, and the uptake value in patients with cardiovascular events was significantly higher than that in patients without cardiovascular events. These results further support the fact that higher fluoride uptake in coronary arteries indicates increased cardiovascular risk.

The combination of sodium [18F]fluoride PET and CT is a promising imaging modality that provides both metabolic and anatomic information in evaluating vascular calcification. However, large-scale studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of fluoride PET/CT for imaging atherosclerosis.

Conclusion

Our study demonstrates that vascular calcification and fluoride uptake are significantly correlated in the same arterial territory, although not necessarily overlapping in the same anatomic locations. An increased fluoride uptake in coronary arteries may be associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. Combined anatomic and metabolic imaging with sodium [18F]fluoride PET/CT offers a promising, noninvasive method to evaluate atherosclerosis.